2011/06/18

Normal Adjectives

Normal adjectives are those that come before a noun. For example in a phrase like “beautiful girl”, or “new car”.

Normal adjectives always agree in gender, and case with the noun that they are describing. This means that there are several ending for each adjective.

There are two systems to make the adjectives. Use the ‘Soft Adjectives’ table for those adjectives ending in “-ний”, otherwise use the ‘Hard Adjectives’

Normal Adjectives - Hard (“-ый”, “-ой”, “-ий” (but not “-ний”))

Hard Adjectives are by far the most common. Just substitute “-ый” for “-ой”, or “-ий” where needed. (other table entries remain the same).

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Nominative Case

-ый

-ая

-ое

-ые

Accusative Case

-ый 
-ого (anim.)

-ую

-ое

-ые 
-ых (anim.)

Genitive Case

-ого

-ой

-ого

-ых

Dative Case

-ому

-ой

-ому

-ым

Instrumental Case

-ым

-ой

-ым

-ыми

Prepositional Case

-ом

-ой

-ом

-ых

For example, the word "новый" (new) ends in the letters -ый so we use the forms above.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Nominative Case

новый

новая

новое

новые

Accusative Case

новый 
нового (anim.)

новую

новое

новые 
новых (anim.)

Genitive Case

нового

новой

нового

новых

Dative Case

новому

новой

новому

новым

Instrumental Case

новым

новой

новым

новыми

Prepositional Case

новом

новой

новом

новых

 

Normal Adjectives - Soft (“-ний”)

The soft form or normal adjectives is less common. It's for adjectives ending in “-ний”.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Nominative Case

-ий

-яя

-ее

-ие

Accusative Case

-ий 
-его (anim.)

-юю

-ее

-ие 
-их (anim.)

Genitive Case

-его

-ей

-его

-их

Dative Case

-ему

-ей

-ему

-им

Instrumental Case

-им

-ей (or -ею)

-им

-ими

Prepositional Case

-ем

-ей

-ем

-их

You will notice that the soft adjectives simply use the soft form of the first added vowel. ("ы" becomes "и", "а" becomes "я", "о" becomes "е","у" becomes "ю"). Otherwise the hard and soft forms are basically the same.

Remember that "его", and "ого", the "г" is pronounced like the english letter "v"

For example, the word "синий" (dark blue) ends in the letters -ий so we use the forular above.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Nominative Case

синий

синяя

синее

синие

Accusative Case

синий 
синего (anim.)

синюю

синее

синие 
синих (anim.)

Genitive Case

синего

синей

синего

синих

Dative Case

синему

синей

синему

синим

Instrumental Case

синим

синей

синим

синими

Prepositional Case

синем

синей

синем

синих

 

Short Adjectives

The second main type of Russian adjectives are the ‘short form’. We don’t really have this form in English, but we do use adjectives the same way.

The short form is generally used to make a statement about something. In English it normally follows the word “is” or “are”. For example, “You are beautiful”, “He is busy”. Notice that the adjective is not followed by a noun. The use of the short form is generally limited to such simple sentences.

It is important to note that not all adjectives can have a short form, (but most do). One notable example is русский (Russian).

Cases are not relevant when using short adjectives, as you only need the nominative case when making such statements. The adjective should still agree in gender with the noun. Masculine nouns just use the stem of the adjective in the short form. Feminine adds “а”. Neuter adds “о”. Plural adds “ы” or “и”. If the adjective is masculine and the stem ends in two consonants, then add a vowel (“о”, “е” or “ё”) so that the word is easier to read.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Short Adjectives

-

-ы or -и

For Example.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Short Adjectives

красив

красива

красиво

красивы

 

Prepositional case of nouns


Prepositional case (In, At and About = о, в, на)

The use of nouns in prepositional case

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plurals

Nominative

Prepositional

Nominative

Prepositional

Nominative

Prepositional

Nominative

Prepositional

Add: «е»

Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”)

1. Replace “а” with “е”.
2. Replace “я” with “е”.
3. Replace “ь” with “и”.

1. Replace “о” with “е” 
2. “е” remains unchanged. 

Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and...

1. Replace "а", "о" or a consonant with "ах".
2. Replace the last letter with "ях"

Город

Пруд

В городе

В пруду

Река

Буря

Степь

На реке

О буре

В степи

Окно

Поле

Стекло

В окне

В поле

На стекле

Город

Окно

Степь

Игра

Море

В городах

На окнах

В степях

Об играх

В морях

 Home work:


 

 

 

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